A Few Biomarkers or “Mileposts” of Ageing
It will be very difficult to measure the success of anti-ageing interventions without using a number of validated biomarkers that reflect the current state of ageing of the organism or person. Here are a few sample biomarkers that might be used:
- Standard frailty measurements (e.g., walking speed at older ages, hand grip, VO2max)
- Insulin, insulin resistance, fasting blood glucose + GTT, HbA1c, adiponectin, DEXA (abdominal adiposity)
- LDL, HDL, blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, intima media thickness, left ventricular diastolic function/pressure
- Inflammatory markers (e.g., CRP, IL-6, TNF-α)
- Cognitive performance (cognitive tests, fMRIs)
- Lymphocyte number, lymphoid/myeloid ratio
- IGF-I, T3
- Epigenetic profile (e.g., DNA methylation)
- Renal clearance (age 60–90)
Some of the interventions that have been proposed for blocking ageing include the following:
- Pharmacological inhibition of the GH/IGF-1 axis
- Protein restriction and Fasting Mimicking Diets
- Pharmacological inhibition of the TOR -S6K pathway
- Pharmacological regulation of certain sirtuin proteins and the use of spermidine and other epigenetic modulators
- Pharmacological inhibition of inflammation
- Chronic metformin use
The review article above goes through all of these interventions in fair detail, with references. But the suggestions for intervention above are not necessarily practical for most readers at this time, unless they have access to pharmaceutical grade chemicals and other restricted materials and devices.
Most people are understandably reluctant to make themselves guinea pigs in the service of future generations, which might or might not benefit from their generous sacrifice of money, time, effort, and in some cases health and peace of mind.
A Few Available Supplements You May Not Have Considered
Nicotinamide riboside prevents muscle, neural and menalocyte stem cell senescence. Increased muscular regeneration in mice has been observed after treatment with nicotinamide riboside, leading to speculation that it might improve regeneration of organs such as the liver, kidney, and heart.
Benfotiamine is believed to enhance in humans the activity of the enzyme transketolase, which converts harmful glucose metabolites at the cellular level into harmless chemicals, preventing damage, especially to the endothelial cells which line the small arteries and capillaries of the kidneys and retinas.
Beta-alanine has been shown to enhance muscular endurance. Many people report being able to perform one or two additional reps in the gym when training in sets of 8–15 repetitions. Beta-alanine supplementation can also improve moderate- to high-intensity cardiovascular exercise performance, like rowing or sprinting.
Berberine is definitely at the top of my list of recommendations if you have diabetes, cardiovascular concerns, cancer and immune challenges, intestinal infections or just want an overall health supplement.
These are only suggestions for further research on your part if you are not familiar with these supplements.
Nothing is more personal than what a person chooses to put into his body. Always do research on any supplements or medications you consider using. Supplements such as those mentioned above are inevitably surrounded by controversy, given the claims made for them and the relative paucity of peer-reviewed literature. But if you are a person who feels that he can weigh the relative risks and benefits of a practise using a limited amount of information, the short list of less commonly taken supplements above is worth considering.
Taking too many supplements can be both costly and counter-productive. Producing expensive urine and stool is only one of the wasteful consequences of taking unnecessary supplements. Some side effects of particular supplements can be damaging to your health as well as your pocketbooks, if you are not careful.
On the other hand, nothing is more natural than disease and death. The timely use of the proper chemical can make the difference between life and death, premature ageing and senility or a longer useful lifespan than might have been the case without.
It’s your body and your brain, and the final say on health decisions should be yours.