Regeneron is holding clinical trials in the US for the drug Kevzara, for use in critically ill Wuhan virus patients. Sanofi Pharmaceuticals is expanding clinical trials for the drug in the countries Italy, Spain, Germany, France, Canada, and Russia.
The trial, expected to enroll about 300 patients, will recruit hospitalized patients from several countries who are severely or critically ill with [Wuhan / COVID-19] infection, a disease caused by the highly contagious coronavirus.
Kevzara is an immune response modifying drug in the class of monoclonal antibodies. Kevzara inhibits the inflammatory substance IL-6, and may help to stop the ARDS cascade in the lungs and elsewhere in the body. The drug is ordinarily used to treat the crippling disease rheumatoid arthritis, but like several other drugs is being “repurposed” for fighting Wuhan CoV-19.
The biggest causes of deaths from COVID-19 include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients critically ill from COVID-19, and it is thought the drugs targeting the IL-6 pathway can address this life-threatening inflammation seen in these patients. __ https://pharmaintelligence.informa.com/resources/product-content/coronavirus-update-can-il6-drugs-cut-deaths-kevzara-trials-start-in-worst-hit-countries
Another “monoclonal antibody” drug that is being repurposed for Wuhan coronavirus is leronlimab, an anti-cancer drug.
“The coronavirus kills people because of acute respiratory distress in the lungs, because of inflammation in the lungs,” CytoDyn President and CEO Nader Pourhassan said. “Our drugs will take the inflammation down immediately.” … Preliminary results have been promising, according to its Interim Chief Medical Officer Jacob Lalezari. Some 10 patients have been given the drug, and, so far, four patients are exhibiting significant improvements.
… “To be very clear, leronlimab does not kill the novel coronavirus. It acts as a CCR5 antagonist by blocking pro-inflammatory cytokines, which prevents cytokine storm and thus could be useful in the treatment of COVID-19,” Pourhassan said. __ Source
“Cytokine Storm” is Associated with Life-Threatening ARDS
Under certain kinds of assault, the human immune system can be tricked into releasing a cascade of inflammatory molecules that can result in death. Note that some people are more prone to ARDS than others, which could help to explain why some people with Wuhan CoV-19 get a mild cold or a mild viral pneumonia, and others develop ARDS, cytokine storm, and die.
In early ARDS, increased capillary permeability is the hallmark outcome of the inflammatory process resulting from direct or indirect lung injury with disruption of the capillary-alveolar interface. This leads to leakage of protein-rich fluid from the capillary into the alveoli resulting in diffuse alveolar injury triggering an overwhelming release of pro-inflammatory cytokines mainly TNF, IL-1 and IL-6 and creating an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This initiates the inflammation cascade and recruits’ neutrophils which again play a crucial role in causing inflammation by releasing ROS and proteases. It has been noted that patients with ARDS, have transcription abnormalities involving NF-kappa B which is required for transcription of genes responsible for pro-inflammatory mediators. Other substances such as endothelin-1, angiotensin-2 and phospholipase A2 have also been found to worsen vascular permeability and underlying inflammation causing increased lung injury[12-15]. A hyper- inflammatory sub phenotype in ARDS has been recently identified and associated with worse outcomes compared to a hypo-inflammatory sub phenotype. __ Diagnosis & Treatment of Acute Pulmonary Inflammation…
Other Companies Involved in Treatments and Vaccines
A number of other companies are actively involved in the testing of existing drugs against the novel coronavirus. Yet more companies around the world are frantically developing new vaccines for use against Wuhan/COVID-19.
Johnson & Johnson’s announcement that it expects its vaccine to be available in 2021 comes after biotech firm Moderna administered its first dose of a vaccine to a trial patient earlier this month.
Other companies involved in the treatment or vaccine process include BioNTech SE and Pfizer, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Heat Biologics, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Novavax, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Roche Holding, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company and Vaxart, Marketwatch reported.
So far, only Moderna is in the clinical trial phase for a vaccine while Regeneron and Sanofi, Roche and Gilead Sciences are in the clinical trial phases for a treatment. The World Health Organization lists Moderna and China-based company CanSino Biologics, partnered with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, as the only two groups with a vaccine in the clinical trial phase.
DiaSorin Molecular and QIAGEN have received federal funding to develop coronavirus diagnostic tests that deliver results in an hour. And BuzzFeed News reported that Pharmaceutical Product Development was awarded money to study the use of hydrochloroquine and chloroquine—drugs used to combat malaria—as treatment for coronavirus patients.
“You’re going to be hearing over the next month or more about different drugs that are going to go into these randomized controlled trials,” Dr. Anthony Fauci, the country’s top infectious diseases expert at the National Institute of Health, said last week at the White House. “I feel confident—knowing about what this virus is and what we can do with it—that we will have some sort of therapy that will give at least a partial, if not a very good, protection in preventing progression of disease.”
Fauci has warned that it would likely be up to 18 months before a widespread vaccine would be available in mass quantities for the public. __ Newsweek
You Will Probably Not Die from Coronavirus
In the US, you are more likely to die of these things, in increasing order:
3,000: food poisoning
6,946: accidental hanging
7,450: pedestrians hit by a car
20,108: inflammation resulting from food or liquids getting into the lungs
35,000: antibiotic-resistant bacteria
35,823: alcohol-induced deaths
40,922: blood poisoning resulting from bacteria
55,672: flu and pneumonia
64,795: accidental poisoning
160,201: chronic lower respiratory disease
169,936: all accidental deaths
250,000: medical errors
647,457: heart disease __ Common Causes of Death US
When the reaper comes for you, all the toilet paper in the world will not buy you more time.
Because we have no vaccines and no well-established treatments for the severe form of Wuhan Coronavirus, it represents a temporary threat to populations, health care systems, and health care providers. These systems and providers are needed for dealing with other health problems which cause far higher numbers of morbidity and mortality than does Wuhan, so we are attempting to follow policies that we think will spare these workers and systems..
While we are not likely to die of the disease, we have to deal with it.
And even if China did not deliberately set this pandemic loose on the rest of the world,
The ongoing global pandemic is causing such severe economic disruption, that it represents a type of “reset” or “restart” global historical phenomenon. At the end of another such event — World War II — the US was essentially the “last man standing,” allowing the country to boost the rest of the civilized world to economic and industrial recovery from the horrible devastation.
The economic destruction and death counts from Wuhan-19 are nothing like WWII, yet the analogy of “reset” holds. Countries that give their economies the benefit of low taxes, low regulations, intellectual property rights, right to work, and fair trade practices, will be in a better position to skyrocket to higher levels of prosperity. Obviously China wants to be “the last man standing” after Wuhan CoV-19 plays itself out, but this can only happen if Europe and the Anglosphere let it happen.
US Wuhan CoV-19 Mortality Rates Lower than Most of World
The US and the world is hard at work developing vaccines, treatments, and better testing in order to meet the challenge of novel coronavirus. But while medical workers are battling on the front lines, other trained experts must make sense of the markedly non-homogeneous nature of the global outbreak. Besides the variability in the quality and quantity of intensive care treatment, it is likely that there is population variability in biological susceptibility to severe pneumonia and ARDS from coronavirus.
According to the Worldometer, a private statistical resource used by Johns Hopkins University, the New York Times and others, as of April 1, the United States had 188,881 cases and 4,066 deaths, for a total fatality rate of 2.15%.
That is the one of the lowest fatality rates among the world’s major developed countries. In the world as a whole, according to Worldometer, by April 1 there had been a total of 884,075 coronavirus cases, resulting in 44,169 fatalities, for a world fatality rate of 4.99%.
… Thus, the U.S. fatality rate ranks among the lowest of any developed country, bettered only by Germany and South Korea, and well ahead of China, Italy, Spain, France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. __ https://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2020/04/01/low_us_covid-19_death_rate_means_efforts_are_working.html
The case mortality rate on the Diamond Princess cruise ship was about 1%. There is no reason to expect the final number to be significantly higher than that, once the entire world catches up on testing for the virus.